My musicological research focuses on the song repertoire of women composers, particularly those from the nineteenth century. By challenging gendered historiographical narratives that surround “canon” creation, I work to dismantle socio-cultural constructs and biases that continually diminish the historic contributions of women creators within classical vocal repertoire.
In 2021, I conceived of In Search of Luise Adolpha Le Beau, a multifaceted project to research the Lieder (songs) of German composer Luise Adolpha Le Beau (1850-1927), a body of vocal repertoire that remains overlooked to the present day.
Le Beau’s entire oeuvre contains over sixty works, including nineteen song opuses with a total of fifty-seven songs, vocal duets, and vocal trios. Ten Lieder opuses were published between 1877 and 1898, while nine Lieder opuses, composed between 1880 and 1921, remain unpublished. Le Beau’s Lieder aesthetic aligns itself most readily with Lieder practices of the 1830s to 1850s, akin to those of composer Robert Schumann (1810-1856), and Le Beau composed strophic and through-composed songs with texts by twenty-seven individual poets.
1893 photograph of Le Beau, printed in her 1910 memoir Lebenserinnerungen einer Komponistin
Born in Rastatt, Germany, Luise Adolpha Le Beau (1850-1927) was raised in a musical family, and her parents devoted themselves to her education. She later cultivated her professional career as a composer, pianist, music critic, and piano pedagogue, although she identified primarily as a composer. Le Beau wrote in large-scale forms, such as symphonies, operas, and choral works, but also embraced small-scale Lieder and instrumental chamber music. During the 1870’s and 1880’s in Munich, Le Beau was successful in publishing and seeking performances of her newest works. In the decades that followed, however, she struggled to find further performance opportunities, moving to Wiesbaden, Berlin, and Baden-Baden to seek more fertile collaborative landscapes.
In her 1910 memoir Lebenserinnerungen einer Komponistin (Memoirs of a Woman Composer), Le Beau outlines the trajectory of her career as a German woman composer of the late nineteenth century. Ultimately, the author reveals how gender prejudice hindered the public success of her musical works and thwarted her career ambitions as a composer. To combat the gendered bias that had obstructed her professional efforts, Le Beau self-consciously preserved her own musical legacy. By bequeathing her Nachlass (estate) to the state libraries in Karlsruhe, Munich, and Berlin, Le Beau hoped her music and life story would survive to earn an “unparteiischer und gerechter” (“more impartial and fairer”) assessment from future generations. 
Upon her death in 1927, the composer’s act of self-preservation proved prescient. Le Beau and her music were simply “forgotten,” a cultural erasure precipitated by the partial destruction of Le Beau’s estate at the Badische Landesbibliothek during the bombing of Karlsruhe in World War II. While more recent scholarship has explored her large-scale works and instrumental chamber music, there is little to no scholarship about Le Beau’s Lieder repertoire, only a handful of her ten published Lieder opuses are readily accessible to the public, and to my knowledge, no professional recordings of Le Beau’s Lieder exist.
Memorial plaque for Luise Adolpha Le Beau in Baden-Baden at Lichtenthaler Straße 46; as of 2021, the plaque has been removed from the building after renovation Photo: Gerd Eichmann | Wikimedia Commons
Lebenserinnerungen einer Komponistin (Memoirs of a Woman Composer)
If I now, at the age of fifty-nine, try to describe my experiences as objectively as possible, it is not done out of vanity or arrogance, but rather, from other motives. Firstly, it was a wish of my dear, blessed father that I would point out the many difficulties that stand in the way of a woman in the field of musical composition, the envy and resentment of my colleagues, as well as the prejudice and misunderstanding in the advice of those who were the most qualified and best situated to nurture a talent, and that I speak the truth loudly without shyness or regard for well-known individuals – however, I was also supported by others, who played a role in my life as an artist, who encouraged me to tell my story…
In his encyclopedia of music history, Herr Ritter compares the making of music in the nineteenth century with a large forest that is covered with all kinds of trees and says, that not only do a few giant trees make up the forest, but rather, the small trees, bushes, grasses, flowers, and mosses are essential to giving it its real character… Whatever gifts I was given, I have nurtured with all my strength; no one can do anything more! I did not disdain even the smallest gifts, but rather, I took delight in all musical works, as long as they were artistically serious and true… Should one or another of my compositions please later generations, I have not written in vain. I have never wished for more recognition than I deserve! Finally, I thank all those who are still living or have already led the way to a better land, all those who have given me the gift of interest and friendly encouragement for my striving!
Excerpted from “Foreword” in Lebenserinnerungen einer Komponistin (1910) by Luise Adolpha Le Beau Translation by Noelle McMurtry
Cover for Le Beau’s autobiography, Lebenserinnerungen einer Komponistin (1910)
Woman Walking Through A Forest (1878) Peter Mønsted (1859-1941) Brave Fine Art
Archival Research in Germany
With support from The Presser Foundation, I traveled to Germany from March to early June 2022, where I collected materials relevant to Le Beau’s song practice from the composer’s self-curated Nachlass (estate) at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, the Badische Landesbibliothek Karlsruhe, and the Stadtbibliothek Baden-Baden.
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin on Unter den Linden
Musikabteilung mit Mendelssohn-Archiv at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin
Le Beau’s autograph catalogue of her compositions on microfilm
Examining Le Beau’s Lieder manuscripts on microfilm
Scanning Lieder manuscripts from microfilm into PDF files
Cover page from Le Beau’s unpublished manuscript for op. 22, “Im Sängersaal”
Badische Landesbibliothek Karlsruhe
Photos were not permitted inside the music department’s archive…
Scanned page from Le Beau’s poetry notebook from the Badische Landesbibliothek Karlsruhe
Le Beau’s calling card from her years in Munich (1875-1885)
Table of contents from Le Beau’s manuscript on music theory
Examples of harmonic progressions from Le Beau’s music theory manuscirptal
Home in Baden-Baden where famous composer Clara Schumann (1819-1896) lived from 1863 to 1873
Back garden facing Lichtentaler Allee in Baden-Baden where Le Beau took lessons with composer Clara Schumann in the summer of 1873
In April 2023, I completed my DMA thesis at Peabody Institute, titled Unearthing a Self-Curated Nachlass: A Survey of Luise Adolpha Le Beau’s Published Lieder. I presented a lecture recital on Le Beau’s published songs with pianist Hui-Chuan Chen, as well as performed excerpts from Le Beau’s vocal duets and trios with sopranos Julie Bosworth and Claire Galloway Weber on the January 2023 chamber music recital, Sauvez-moi de l’amour. Watch our performance in the multimedia section below.
My future plans for In Search of Luise Adolpha Le Beau include finishing a monograph on Le Beau’s Lieder practice and oeuvre, presenting public concerts of Le Beau’s Lieder in both Germany and the US, and recording an album of Le Beau’s song repertoire.
Le Beau Lieder Publishing Project
Since spring 2022, composer Līva Blūma and I have collaborated to create a collected edition of Le Beau’s Lieder, vocal duets, and vocal trios. Using Sibelius Notation software, Līva has engraved Le Beau’s nine unpublished Lieder manuscripts into working scores. Throughout the transcription process, we have encountered some unexpected (and interesting!) challenges. Le Beau exclusively wrote in Kurrentschrift, a cursive script standardized throughout Germany from the late eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries. Kurrentschrift uses a distinct alphabet, and due to the interconnected nature of its letters, Le Beau’s song texts are challenging for the contemporary reader to decipher. In order to read and ultimately translate Le Beau’s song lyrics into English, we sought assistance from independent scholar and Kurrentschrift translator Christina Petterson, who translated Le Beau’s Kurrentschrift lyrics into German Roman script.
Alphabet in Kurrentschrift (c. 1865) Wikimedia Commons | Public DomainManuscript page of “Unsterblichkeit” from Le Beau’s Zwei Gesänge aus ,,Urania”, op. 56 (unpublished)
In the coming year, Līva and I plan to publish a collected edition of Le Beau’s Lieder, vocal duets, and vocal trios, as well as to create a digital humanities project that contextualizes Le Beau’s song repertoire for a wider audience online. Check out this space for updates on our progress!
Līva Blūma (b. 1994) is a Latvian composer and singer. Her work as a composer incorporates varied extra-musical sources such as poetry, visual art, spam emails, and boxing matches. Curiosity and collaboration are instrumental parts of her creative process, be it a piece for string orchestra, vocal a cappella or music for a shadow theatre performance engaging patients from a local mental health facility. As a singer, Līva performs solo art song and choral music. She sings everything from the medieval to the contemporary. Līva has been singing full-time with the State Choir LATVIJA since September 2022.
Līva holds a Bachelor’s degree in composition from Jazeps Vitols Latvian Music Academy. She completed her Master’s in Composition at the Peabody Institute Of Johns Hopkins University, under the tutelage of professor Michael Hersch in 2021. Currently, Līva is based in Rīga, Latvia where in November 2023 she premiered her first chamber opera MONSTERA DELICIOSA for four singers, piano, and percussion. This opera centers on stories of Baltic women and plants. Listen to examples of Līva’s music on Soundcloud.
Līva is also sincerely interested in engraving the works of historic women composers. This interest stems from a personal conviction that amplifying the voices of historically marginalized composers is of true necessity. For Līva, making historic manuscripts into performance-ready editions raises awareness about voices that have been silenced by the political climate and other societal issues.
Excerpts from Zwei Duette, op. 6 and Vier Terzette, op. 5 by Luise Adolpha Le Beau (1850-1927) i. “Frühlingsanfang” from Zwei Duette, op. 6 (1877) | ii. “Zur Nacht” from Vier Terzette, op. 5 (1877) | iii. “Abendlied” from Zwei Duette, op. 6 (1877) | iv. “Gefunden” from Vier Terzette, op. 5 (1877) Noelle McMurtry (soprano), Julie Bosworth (soprano), Claire Galloway Weber (soprano) & Hui-Chuan Chen (piano) Peabody Institute | January 2023
1. Luise Adolpha Le Beau, Lebenserinnerungen einer Komponistin (Baden-Baden: E. Sommermeyer, 1910), 8-9. Translation by Noelle McMurtry.
In Portraits and Persons: A Philosophical Inquiry, Cynthia Freeland discusses how the ever-changing nature of portraiture, across locale and era, reflects “what it is to be a person.”  She defines the portrait artist as “an alchemist who seeks to make inert physical material ‘live’ and show us a person, an actual individual whose physical embodiment reveals psychological awareness, consciousness, and an inner emotional life.”  One of the more striking features of a portrait is its ability to capture the “essence” of a person, if only for a specific moment in time. While this momentary “essence” of an individual is elusive and highly susceptible to interpretation, portraiture remains a fascinating portal into the body, mind, and emotional life of another person. Arguably, portraits illuminate some aspect of “the self,” be it us or the self of another.
Isadora Duncan Dancers (1915-1923) Photo: Arnold Genthe, Library of Congress
Along with considering portraiture a representation of some facet of a subject’s “inner life,” Freeland also details another crucial element: “the ability to pose or present oneself to be depicted in a representation.” As a singer, this struck me deeply – the self-awareness of posing both vocally and physically, of putting oneself forward to represent or be represented, of revealing some part of “the self” (either my own self, or an imagined character in a poem or libretto) through sound. It made me wonder – did most of my creative work as a singer involve “painting” portraits with my body, vocal sounds, and words? Often, I have felt the tension of being both the painter and the sitter. While I express interpretive agency through my performance, the audience’s gaze nevertheless maintains my position as an object to be viewed and perceived.
Portraits: The Self Illuminated explores the intersection of these tactile, linguistic, visual, and sonic portraits through the music of Élisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre, Francis Poulenc, Barbara Strozzi, and Lacy Rose and the portraiture of Gwen John, John Duncan, Gustav Klimt, and Bernardo Strozzi. I have consciously paired each musical work with a visual portrait, some of which are known to have directly influenced the musical composition, while others are linked purely through my own imagination. Can they melt into one another to bring “the self” momentarily to the surface, creating that ever-elusive glimpse at the inner life of a human being?
October 2019 Baltimore, MD
NOTES 1. Cynthia, Freeland. Portraits and Persons: A Philosophical Inquiry. New York, Oxford University Press, 2010, 1. 2. Freeland, Portraits and Persons, 74.
Selected Artwork from Portraits: The Self Illuminated
Hope I by Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)Posthumous Portrait of Ria Munk III by Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)Self-Portrait by Gwen John (1876-1936)Woman with Viola da Gamba by Bernardo Strozzi (1581-1644) Ria Munk on her deathbed (Ria Munk auf dem Totenbett) by Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)
Image: Semele by John Duncan (c.1921)
Movement I, from Hope by Lacy Rose Eunchan Kim, piano Christopher Ciampoli, violin William Weijia Wang, violin Flavia Pajaro-van de Stadt, viola Alexander Cousins, cello
Movement II, from Hope by Lacy Rose Eunchan Kim, piano Christopher Ciampoli, violin William Weijia Wang, violin Flavia Pajaro-van de Stadt, viola Alexander Cousins, cello
Movement III, from Hope by Lacy Rose Eunchan Kim, piano Christopher Ciampoli, violin William Weijia Wang, violin Flavia Pajaro-van de Stadt, viola Alexander Cousins, cello
Ria Munk I, from Ria Munk by Lacy Rose Christopher Ciampoli, violin William Weijia Wang, violin Flavia Pajaro-van de Stadt, viola Alexander Cousins, cello
Ria Munk II, from Ria Munk by Lacy Rose Christopher Ciampoli, violin William Weijia Wang, violin Flavia Pajaro-van de Stadt, viola Alexander Cousins, cello
Ria Munk III, from Ria Munk by Lacy Rose Christopher Ciampoli, violin William Weijia Wang, violin Flavia Pajaro-van de Stadt, viola Alexander Cousins, cello
Semelé by Élisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre Paula Maust, harpsichord Christian Paquette, Baroque flute Theodore Welke, theorbo
E giungerà pur mai by Barbara Strozzi Theodore Welke, theorbo
Trois poèmes de Louise de Vilmorin by Francis Poulenc Eunchan Kim, piano
Portraits: The Self Illuminated is in partial fulfillment of the Doctor of Musical Arts degree in Vocal Performance at the Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University.
The Heart wants what it wants – or else it does not care… Not to see what we love, is very terrible – and talking – doesn’t ease it – and nothing does – but just itself.
Emily Dickinson, Letter to a friend (Spring, 1862)
In Head, Heart,works by Élisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre, Kaija Saariaho, Kate Soper, and John Harbison all share a common theme: the struggle between the head and the heart. While the severity of this struggle and its consequences vary, its underlying tension lingers. As the musical protagonists of these works experience love, loss, death, violence, and ecstatic bliss, they must continually examine what they are willing to sacrifice to achieve their aims.
For de la Guerre’s Esther of the Old Testament, it is a question of ultimate survival: should she risk her own life to save the Jewish people of Persia from annihilation at the hands of Haman? For Harbison’s Mirabai, should she abandon her family, her possessions, her noble status, and everything she has ever known to devote her life to the Hindu deity Krishna? For both Soper and Saariaho, the heart becomes disembodied altogether, adopting its own voice to teach the head about life, counseling the self to be released from its painful burdens, but at what cost?
Ultimately, the inter-play between these parts of ourselves, not the dominance of one over another, truly defines our actions. By exploring these characters, no matter how divided they seem by time, place, and musical style, we encounter a glimpse of our own fragile selves, as we too navigate the ever-complex binary of the head and the heart.
French Canadian flutist Christian Paquette is the Principal Flute of the York Symphony Orchestra and newly appointed Principal Flute of the Baltimore Chamber Orchestra. In September of 2022 he will hold the position of Principal Flute of the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony Orchestra in Canada. He is a doctoral candidate at the Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University under the tutelage of Marina Piccinini. He has also worked in flute repairs with Adam Workman, founder of Flutistry Boston. He has frequently performed back in his hometown of Ottawa, Canada with the Ottawa Symphony Orchestra, the National Arts Centre Orchestra and the Thirteen Strings Ensemble. He was also the President of the Ottawa Flute Association from 2015 to 2017.
Christian has performed in the Shriver Hall Concert Series, Music and Beyond Festival, recitals at the National Arts Centre Fourth Stage, Concerto performances with the Peabody Symphony Orchestra (Nielsen) under the baton of Miguel Harth-Bedoya, the University of Ottawa Symphony Orchestra (Ibert and Nielsen), and with the Ottawa Chamber Orchestra (Rodrigo). He is greatly looking forward to his performance of the Reinecke Flute Concerto with the Farnborough Symphony Orchestra in England later in 2022. He is the recipient of numerous competition awards, such as the MPIMC (Marina Piccinini International Master Classes) Concerto Competition, first prize at the Yale Gordon Competition, Canadian Music Competition, the National Music Festival, the NACO Bursary Competition and many others. This past summer he was a fellow in the Aspen Contemporary Ensemble and has been reinvited for the 2022 summer season. Past teachers include Paula Robison, Denis Bluteau, and Camille Churchfield.
Christian is extremely grateful to the Fondation Baxter et Alma Ricard as well as the Sylva Gelber Music Foundation for their generous support in his doctoral studies at the Peabody Institute.
Only the words themselves mean what they say by Kate Soper (b.1981) Christian Paquette, flute
The Clouds, from Mirabai Songs by John Harbison (b.1938) Eric Sedgwick, piano
Head, Heart is in partial fulfilment of the Graduate Performance Diploma in Vocal Performance at Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University.
As a performer, I have long been fascinated by the song recital as a medium for questioning notions of “canon,” as well as giving voice to those who have been marginalized in classical music. In doing so, I discover voices that I have never heard before, voices of historic women that are completely unknown to me. In communing with these composers and their music, I pay homage to a tradition of female creation that I wish to claim my place amongst. Through the works of Francesca Caccini, Germaine Tailleferre, Maddalena Casulana, Vittoria Aleotti, Leonora Orsini, and Agathe Backer-Grøndahl, I acknowledge that I exist partly because they existed; in some small way, I stand on their shoulders.
September 2017 Baltimore, MD
Francesca Caccini (1587-1641) Portrait of a Young Woman Known as “La Bella”, Palma Vecchio (c.1518) Leonora Orsini (c.1560 – 1634)Agathe Backer-Grøndahl (1847-1907) Photo: Christiania Drammen Rude National Library of NorwayGermaine Tailleferre (1892-1983) Photo: Arnold Genthe
For more information on the composers and musical works featured in To the queen of my heart, check out my research and writing!
Image: Le miroir psyché by Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection
Lute Songs by Renaissance Women Composers
Tre Sange, Op. 1 by Agathe Backer-Grøndahl
Six chansons françaises by Germaine Tailleferre
To the queen of my heart is in partial fulfilment of the Doctorate in Musical Arts Degree in Vocal Performance at Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University.
What names come to mind when you think of the songs of German Romantic composers? Schumann? Mendelssohn? Schubert? If you imagine Robert, Felix, or Franz, you may want to think again. With the film series “German Romantics,” The Pleiades Project challenges how we define this group of composers by insisting that we not forget the women.
Clara Schumann (1819-1896) was a virtuosic pianist, composer, and piano pedagogue. From the age of eleven, she maintained a sixty-one-year concert career, touring throughout Europe. Her success as a concert artist secured essential income for her family, including her husband, the renowned composer Robert Schumann (1810-1856), and their eight children. She began composing as a child, and her compositions later included solo piano pieces, chamber music, choral works and songs (or Lieder).
For German Romantics: Clara, The Pleiades Project re-conceptualizes the three Lieder of Clara’s Op. 12, originally part of a twelve-song collection jointly published by Clara and Robert to poetry by Friedrich Rückert. In 1841, soon after their marriage, Robert urged his wife to collaborate on a compositional project. Although she was initially ambivalent about composing, Clara began to work on the songs of Op. 12.
While these songs may have marked the beginning of Clara and Robert’s union, the protagonist of German Romantics: Clara navigates Op. 12 as she copes with the end of an important relationship. As she confronts the end of this chapter in her life, her imagination travels to vibrant fantasy worlds of the past. In becoming the heroine of her own story, our protagonist reaches closure and the ability to move forward.
German Romantics: Clara – Full Version For more episodes, check out the Multimedia section below.
German Romantics was made possible by the generous support and in collaboration with Washington-DC based opera company, IN Series.
German Romantics was conceived to be watched on INVision: The Logan Opera House Without Walls. Created in response to performance restrictions imposed by COVID-19 and embracing the opportunity to collaborate broadly and reach worldwide audiences, INVision is IN Series’ first-of-its kind multi-venue digital performing arts center dedicated to disseminating new, transformative works of operatic theater free of charge.
Click here for more information on the two other series’ installments, German Romantics: Louise and German Romantics: Fanny, and watch a YouTube playlist of all three installments here.
“Liebst du um Schönheit” from German Romantics: Clara
“Er ist gekommen” from German Romantics: Clara
“Warum willst du and’re fragen” from German Romantics: Clara